Библиотека нематериального культурного наследия Республики Башкортостан
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The Bashkir yurt is a model of the world

The finest felt from a flock of a thousand sheep,
Stretched over a frame shaped like the extended bows of a hundred soldiers.
Ribs of the healthiest willow,
Its colour dyed to saturation with the freshest indigo.
Made in the north according to a Rong invention,
It moved south following the migration of slaves.
Bai Juyi, Chinese poet
Yurt (in Bashkir – «tirme») is a portable dwelling of the Bashkirs. The frame of the yurt was easily disassembled and re-installed in a short time.

The book «Culture of the peoples of Bashkortostan from ancient times to the present» says that the Bashkirs lived in it from spring to late autumn. They had two types of yurt – of Turkic and Mongolian origin. Latticed yurts of Turkic origin were also used by Kazakhs, Kirghizs, Karakalpaks and nomadic Uzbeks.

The concept of «yurt» as a temporary dwelling entered the Russian language from the names of the seasonal camps of Bashkir cattle breeders, where latticed domed dwellings were placed: spring camp (in Bashkir – «yazgy yurt»), summer camp (in Bashkir – «yeyge yurt») and autumn camp (in Bashkir – «kezge yurt»). As in ancient times, it was convenient to transport yurts on oxen, camels, mules and horses.

Behind a light felt partition the nomads could hear the breath of the steppe: the movement of the wind, the singing of birds, the stomping of horses, the voices of relatives.
The book by A. G. Yanbukhtina «Folk traditions in the decoration of the Bashkir house» says that each Bashkir family had one yurt, a family of average wealth – two ones, the most prosperous, rich Bashkirs – three or even four ones. Leo Tolstoy, during his staying in the Samara steppe in 1871, in one of his letters to Yasnaya Polyana wrote: «Our house owner (he is a mullah) has four kibitkas (an obsolete word for a portable felted frame dwelling): he lives with his wife in the first one, his son with his wife lives in the second one. The third one is for two kumyzniks (persons, who were treated with kumis). We live in the fourth huge kibitka, in which there was a mosque before». The poorest lived in bast-covered huts in summer camps.

The location of the yurts at nomads camps submitted to a certain scheme. «The round kibitka, intended for living of an individual family, was the basis of a nomadic group or, in other words, a tribal unit. A group of kibitkas, arranged in a tight circle, with entrances facing inward, represented the home of a large family and symbolized the undivided unity of the clan», – writes B. G. Kalimullin in the book «Planning and development of Bashkir villages».

Half a lifetime – in the yurt

The yurt as a temporary dwelling of ancient and modern Turkic-speaking pastoralists is perfectly suited for the requirements of life in nomadic and semi-nomadic conditions. The origins of the design features of the yurt go back to ancient Scythian-Sarmatian and Hunnic times, when felt-covered hut-like dwellings were widespread. Gradually changing, the yurt took its modern form by the middle of the 1st millennium BC.

All the things in the yurt were placed along the walls, leaving the middle free. In the center there was a place for a hearth. Under the hole in the dome a shallow hole was dug in the ground, where a tripod for the cauldron was installed. The hole was covered with stone, while the cauldron rested on a stone base in the form of an open ring.

The floor in the yurt was covered with dry grass. The living space was organized in relation to the center. In the far half of the yurt, behind the hearth, there was a place of honor. Felts and carpets were spread over the grass here.

In this part the Bashkirs received guests and arranged home meals. A certain order was observed in the arrangement of all the things and utensils. The right side of the yurt was considered female. There were cupboards and benches, tursuks (special containers) with kumis, tubs with airan (sour-milk drink) and honey, boxes and baskets, utensils and food supplies.
On the left side of the yurt, which was more elegant, there were forged chests with property located on wooden stands. The bedding was folded on them: blankets, pillows, colored rugs. The field harness, saddles, weapons, smart clothes were hung out on the walls. In yurts of wealthy Bashkirs sometimes there were low beds with carved wooden headboards. The interior of the yurt depended on the level of the family's wealth: the richer the family was, the more numerous, more colorful were the household items.

The decoration of the special guest yurts was luxurious. Not only the entire floor was covered with carpets, but also the walls were decorated. Quilted mats and pillows were laid on them. There was a vessel with kumis on a stand at the entrance, buckets hung for treating guests. In such yurts special guests were received, family celebrations the Bashkirs also celebrated here.

White yurts were considered the most solemn. Accommodations for receiving guests were covered with white felts. The yurt, covered with light felt, testified to the wealth of the family.

Kibitkas in camps were always lined up in a row and fenced off in several pieces or all together with a fence made of poles so that the cattle did not approach the kibitkas themselves. However, fences were rarely set up in the steppe (according to S. Shitova and S. Rudenko).
Perfect home
For more than 1,5 thousand years of it's history, since the first images of the yurt appeared on funerary figurines from Northern China, dating back to the beginning of the 6th century AD, the yurt has hardly undergone any major changes or innovations till our days.

Like hundreds of years ago the skeletal structure of the yurt was based on: cylindrical base of 5–6 links-lattices, interconnected by knotted straps (kanat, in Bashkir means «wing»), a dome formed from more than 100 planed and curved at the bottom of the willow poles (uk, in Bashkir means «arrow»). One end of the poles rested against the crosshairs of the laths of the upper edge of the links-lattices, the other, upper, end – into special holes in the wooden rim (sagarak), which formed the dome with a diameter of the light-and-smoke hole of about 1,5 m. On the east side between the first and the closing lattice – link of the yurt skeleton – a wooden door frame was inserted. The inner side of the lattices of the yurt frame and the inner side of the door were painted with red paint. Since the dawn of time the outside of the yurt was covered with large pieces of felt and tied crosswise for strength with ropes woven from horsehair (arkan).

The invention of a yurt with a collapsible lattice wall frame, straight or curved poles-rafters of the dome, on which a wooden two-piece hoop of the light-and-smoke hole was attached, was one of the greatest discoveries in the entire nomadic world.

This can only be compared with the invention of stirrups, which made a real revolution in horse breeding and allowed in the shortest possible time to master the vast expanses of the steppes of Eurasia from Altai to Danube thanks to a stable fit in the saddle.

According to researchers, the invention of the yurt took place in the ancient Turkic environment no later than the middle of the 5th century AD. The advantages of a collapsible yurt with a lattice frame were obvious. It literally assembled and disassembled within 30–40 minutes, and the most important thing – it was very convenient for transportation in the form of packs on horses and camels. Horses loaded with parts of the yurt could easily pass both steppe and hard-to-reach mountain pastures.

It is very important to mention, that the yurt in its classic lattice-domed structure occurs only in the entire space of the Eurasian Steppe exclusively among the Turkic-Mongol peoples.
On the territory of Bashkiria at the end of the 19th century domed yurts of the Turkic type were widespread in the southeastern, southern steppe and forest-steppe regions, as well as in the steppe regions of the Orenburg region. At the beginning of the 20th century in the villages of the southeastern regions of Bashkiria (modern Baimaksky, Khaybullinsky districts, south of the Abzelilovsky district) there were specialists-masters in the manufacture of yurts and its individual parts, according to S. N. Shitova. For example, dome poles (uk) were made in the villages of Abdulkarimovo, Kuvatovo, Yangazino of the Baimaksky district, lattices (kanat) – in the village of Abdulnasyrovo, Khaybullinsky district, blanks for a light-and-smoke rim – in the village of Ishberdino of the Baimaksky district and in the village of Rafikovo of the Khaybullinsky district.

The products of local craftsmen were quickly bought up both by the Bashkirs of the Southern Urals and Orenburg steppes and by the Kazakhs. The craftsmen sold their blanks for yurts at fairs in the cities like Orsk, Orenburg, Turgai.

The Bashkirs, who lived in the northeastern, Trans-Urals, some southeastern, southwestern regions, used Mongolian yurts not with curved, but with straight poles of the dome, which gave it a conical shape. The doors were not wooden, but felt. Mongolian yurts were considered to be of little prestige, they were used by poor Bashkir families. As the lattice skeleton of the yurt was very expensive and difficult to manufacture on the household without special tools people modified and simplified the structure of the skeleton and made less complex yurt-like structures. In the Zianchurinsky district, for example, the skeleton of a yurt was fastened with three wooden rims tied to pillars dug vertically in a circle. Between the two lower bars-rims laths of lattices were inserted into special holes placing them crosswise. In this case the lattice was not solid and assembled from separate laths. On the edge of the upper rim the poles of the dome rested, on the upper ends of which a small wooden rim was mounted to release smoke. The whole structure was covered with felt.
Sometimes, for example, southwestern Bashkirs made felt yurts without dome poles, replacing them with thick ropes. A pillar was dug in the center of the future yurt and from the top of it stretched ropes to the lattice. The rope was tied to the upper edge of the lattice, then pulled out and tied to pegs driven into the ground in a circle. A conical shape rope «roof» was covered with felt, the edges of which protruded beyond the edges of the lattice, forming a kind of cornice, thus protecting the felt walls of the yurt frame from rain. The lattices in such yurts were sometimes placed not circular, but quadrangular, which further simplified its construction. The roof in these yurts was also hipped (from the book of S. Shitova).

In the Dyoma river basin there were even more simplified dwellings of a pillar structure, only vaguely resembling yurts in silhouette. In the Alsheyevsky district of Bashkiria poor families often made pole dwellings. Their frame consisted not of lattices, but of 30–40 two-meter poles, dug in a circle. A three-meter pillar was dug in the center, to the top of which the ropes from the poles, dug in a circle, were stretched and fastened. The result was a conical rope roof, which was covered with a felt mat. The side walls and doors were also covered with felt mats.

Who made the yurts?
R. M. Yusupov writes in a methodological guide on yurts: yurts (tirme) were made by special craftsmen (tirmese, osta), who were famous people in the regions of Bashkiria in the past. According to S. N. Shitova and other authors, there was a clear specialization among the masters of making yurts. Some masters made only lattice frames of yurts (village of Abdulnasyrovo of the Khaybullinsky district), others – dome poles (uk) (villages of Abdulkarimovo, Kuvatovo, Yangazino of the Baimaksky district). A wooden rim for the installation of a light-and-smoke hole in the upper part of the dome was made by special craftsmen in the village of Ishberdy of the Baimaksky district and in the village of Rafikovo of the Khaybullinsky district, because there were many birch forests nearby. Only women in the villages of the southeastern and Trans-Urals regions of Bashkiria made felt mats for covering the lattice frame of the yurt, its domed part and a separate dome hole. There were also especially recognized craftswomen thanks to their skill. Practical skills of craftsmen were usually passed on from generation to generation, that is, in most cases it was a family matter that ensured the well-being of the family. The main requirement for wood material in the manufacture of the lattice base of the vertical walls of the yurt (kirege), consisting of separate lattices (kanat), as well as long dome poles (uk), was primarily lightness and at the same time strength. This quality is possessed in most cases by common willow. Skillfully made, it gives the yurt lightness and grace. The wooden rim that forms the vault of the yurt above its domed part (sygarak, tagarak) must be heavy and strong, because the rim with its weight holds and gives strength to the domed part and the entire structure of the yurt. So, a wooden rim for the dome of a yurt is made of twisted trunks of birch (kaiyn), black willow (kara tal).

Raw materials for the manufacture of structural parts of the yurt were prepared before or after sap flow in tree trunks. Craftsmen usually harvested trunks of birch and willow in early spring, at the end of February – mid-March, or in late autumn – at the end of October, in November. Cut blanks 200–250 cm long for lattices and dome poles were dried in the shade, in a dry room, laid on a flat surface, cleaned from bark, planed with a special carpentry tool – two-handed tartky, irregularities were corrected with a small plane (yishky).
In order to give the desired bend in the lower part of the dome poles the lower, thicker, part was cut in a section of 70–80 cm, giving a more-flat shape up to 4–5 cm wide. After that the blank was soaked in water or steam in order to soften before the procedure of bending the lower part of the dome poles, which gave the spherical shape of the domed part of the yurt. After the soaking procedure the lower part of the dome poles was bent on special machines, superimposing 6–8 pieces on top of each other. The shape of the bend was checked with a special template. Village craftsmen in the regions of Bashkiria bent in a simpler, traditional way. They drove three stakes up to 0,5 m high into the ground or inserted them into specially knocked out holes on the floor or in the wall of the workshop. The distance between the first and second stake was up to 1,5 m or a little more. The third stake was driven into the ground or floor at a distance of 40–50 cm from the second stake, but not on one line, but 30–40 cm lower. The soaked poles 200–250 cm long (on average 220 cm) were bent in the thickened part and inserted between the pegs, dried for 10 or more days. After drying the dome poles took the desired shape of the bend, which gave the dome of the yurt its volume and sphericity.

During the cold off-season the yurt was insulated with felt sheets outside. The door was usually fastened with special wide straps or door hinges.
Assembling a yurt
The Bashkirs, having arrived at the summer camp, unloaded from horses and carts folded and connected lattices, dome poles, felt coverings, a light-and-smoke hoop, a door frame, household utensils, dishes, etc.

After that they chose a place to install the yurt on a more or less level place, closer to the water and the edge of the forest, if it was nearby. The assembling of the yurt began after that. Traditionally, women were involved in this activity. First, a door frame was placed on the east side, to which the first lattice was fastened with straps on the left side, and all the rest were attached to it, fastening them together with straps and tying them tightly at the joints with horsehair ropes.

The most recent lattice was attached to a vertical pillar on the right side of the door frame. The ends of the laths of the sidewalls of the lattices were inserted into the holes on the outer sides of the door frames. After that along the entire perimeter of the upper edge of the lattice frame of the yurt the frame was pulled together with a rope and over it a colored woolen braid woven with a beautiful pattern was stretched.

Having assembled and rigidly fastened the lattice frame of the yurt (kirege, tires), women proceeded to assembling the dome of the yurt. Men helped to do it. At first 2–3 men raised a wooden smoke-and-light rim on two special poles with pointed ends. Women inserted sharp or faceted ends of poles into the ends of the rim. The lower end of the poles was attached to the crosshairs of the upper edge of the yurt lattices. Then the rest of the dome poles were sequentially fastened with straps to the lattice frame. At the lower end of these poles special holes were drilled, through which rawhide straps were threaded and tightly tied in a knot so that their long ends remained free. With these ends the lower ends of the poles were tied to the upper crosshairs of the lattice laths.
After that the wooden frame of the yurt was covered with felt, and the side walls of the yurt were tied round with special 3–4 horsehair belts, 2 to 10 cm wide. This strengthened the skeleton of the yurt and tightly pressed the lower overhanging edge of the dome felt to the upper edge of the side walls of the yurt. Dome felt coverings were also tied tightly criss-cross with 4–6 hair lassos or ropes. Their ends were tied to pegs driven into the ground along the perimeter of the yurt. The dome of the light-and-smoke hole was covered with a special quadrangular felt mat (tunduk). The three ends of this felt mat were firmly attached with ropes to the body of the yurt. A rope was attached to the fourth free corner, with which one could close or open the chimney in the dome of the yurt. The light-and-smoke hole was usually opened, it was closed only in bad weather. Dome felt layers were thicker than lateral. Their edges were usually trimmed with horsehair for stiffness. Dome felt coverings were lifted using special wooden poles 250–300 cm long. There was a sharp metal nail on one end, and the other end was simply sharpened. The sharp end of a long pole was used to pry off the upper edge of the dome felt, the other end of the pole was rested against the ground, and the felt covering was lifted onto the domed part of the yurt with two poles without much difficulty. In the cold season the bottom of the yurt was additionally insulated with a wide felt belt. It was tied around with a rope. A groove was dug along the perimeter of the yurt in case of rains and melting snow, so that water would not flow into the yurt.
Usually yurts at summer camps were covered with dark or gray felt. Wealthy pastoralists covered their homes with white felt. Wedding yurts were also covered with white felt mats. On solemn occasions the side walls of the yurt were decorated with beautiful decorative fabrics, Chinese silk. The top of the yurt was also covered over the felt coverings with light silk. Wooden floors in yurts were usually not laid, as drafts were created in the gaps between the boards and the ground and heat was lost. Felt mat was the best solution because the edges of the felt coverings along the perimeter of the yurt were bent upward, thereby creating tightness and minimizing heat loss. In addition, garbage, dirt, insects and mice could accumulate under the wooden floors, which, according to the old people, negatively affected the inner comfort and aura of well-being and health inside the yurt.
Basic parameters of a 4–5-link yurt. The total weight with wall and dome felt coverings is 400–450 kg, without felt coverings – 150–200 kg. The circumference is about 16–18 m, the height is up to 3 m and more, the diameter is 8–10 m, the area is about 20 m².
R. A. Sultangareeva in the book «Bashkir yurt: traditions of installation of decoration and culture of behavior» reports that several types of yurts were distinguished: a) «tirme» – a traditional household yurt; b) «ash tirme» – a yurt intended for household chores, cooking, etc.; c) «kunak tirme», «ak tirme» – guest yurt made of white felt, intended for receiving guests, visiting friends); d) «Un ike kanatly ak tirme» – a yurt with twelve «wings» – was intended for the elders, beys (heads of the tribe), khans, heads of clans. Before setting up a yurt usually a convenient place for it was chosen. If a horse is crawling this place, if the spider under the cauldron did not weave the web, if a watery spot appears under the overturned bucket – it was a wrong place for yurt.

When setting up the yurt the Bashkirs treated the land with care: the pegs were driven in with prayer, holes wasn't dug unnecessarily, when digging a well or an underground refrigerator whole layers of turf (sirem) were put back in place, etc. The Bashkirs tried to put the yurt away from the nests of large birds and the dens of animals.
The place for the summer camp will be indicated by a silver coin
Determining a safe place for a yurt, the following rituals were performed:

1) with a silver coin tied to a string people walked around the future place of the yurt following the movement of the sun. If the coin did not swing, it was considered a safe place;

2) the cauldron made of cast iron was thrown to the ground. If after a while a spider wove a web there, this meant that the place was calm, favorable;

3) the dishes with water were put on the ground. If after a while on the surface of the water there is a lot of garbage, dry leaves, then the place was considered unfavorable;

4) if a bull, digging the ground with a hoof, could get to a water source, then this place was also considered good.

Traditionally yurts were set up near springs, rivers and clean ponds. Until now the expression «kotlo er» is used in the language – it means «a prosperous land». Similar expression «kalkiu uryn» means «an elevated place». So, the place was considered to be the most preferred for a yurt, since it was dry and warm.

There was a custom of sacrifice to the first fire lit in the hearth of the yurt: usually people threw pieces of fat, meat into the fire and wished prosperity, peace to the family and all relatives. The first smoke from a yurt (in ancient times a fire was made in a hearth inside a yurt) was always noted for goodness, prosperity and peace, and the first guests who came to the house brought kelse (flatbreads baked in hot ash).

At the birth of the first child people made a notch on the main frame of the yurt, saying: «Agas bagan – tirmege, bakyr bagan – mine!» (in Bashkir means: «A tree pillar – for the yurt, a copper pillar – for me!»).

At the same time it was forbidden to install yurts in places of floods, fires, various disasters and misfortunes. According to beliefs, evil, demonic creatures (orek, kurgylyk, renjeu, yamanzat, meskey) could live there. It was also forbidden to install a yurt near the road. The road was considered a tense space and belonging to the sphere of dwelling of various demonic beings, spirits, etc.
Interior decoration
The main colors of the yurt are: most often shades of gray, white (solemn, guest), dark brown or black (colors of natural sheep's wool). The appearance of dark green, dark blue covers of yurts at the present time is an improvisation of the time.

Green, yellow, bright red-yellow colors of yurts grossly violate the ethnic flavor of the symbolic dwelling, bring a noticeable dissonance to the general folklore and ethnographic complex created during large festivals and celebrations. Therefore, from ancient times these colors were unacceptable for the yurt among the Bashkirs.

Inside the yurt there is usually a chest on which the bedding is located; it is installed opposite the door or slightly to the left.

First, an uryn balasy is placed on the chest – a blanket for making the bed. The chest is placed on a shirlek (shirzek) – a wooden support in the form of a wide bench. On this blanket the second one, intended for sitting, is spread — yiyar balas. The next one is korama yurgan – a thick blanket of sheep's wool, trimmed with patchwork. Then yastyk – a large feather bed for two faces – is laid. Usually it was a matrimonial bed. Previously a mandatory rule was observed – one large feather bed was laid on the marriage bed – yastyk for two people. It was believed that it strengthens the bonds of marriage, and it was also called mokhebbet tushege – a feather bed of love (tushek – feather bed).
The next is este balas – esle balas. This is the blanket to which the felt is sewn. Such bedding was considered mandatory in the bride's utensils: the more there were, the richer and more solid the woman's wealth, her fortune was considered. The higher the pile of karalty (bedding) was, the richer the yurt was considered.

Next is the sergetysh – a felt cloth that spreads over the horse's back and is also used as a blanket. The entire bed is pulled together with a special flat, richly ornamented ribbon 10–12 cm wide, which is called karaldy tartkyhy. Family tamgas (the emblem of a particular tribe, clan or family), signs, etc. are embroidered on the ribbon that protects the yurt from evil eyes, evil spirits. By the skillful ornament and beauty of embroidery the skill of a marriageable girl, bride, mistress was noted. The side to the right of the entrance is usually curtained with sharshau – a large red patterned cloth. This part of the yurt is called the female half. Behind it are women's accessories, clothes, a baby cradle, dishes and other kitchen utensils. On the left side (male) are usually harness, bow, arrows, etc. (if it is one big yurt). The owner's bilbau (belts) were hung on the frame: if they were of different colors and there were several of them, then they indicated the number of the owner's wives. In the women's quarters rag tushelderek (neclaces) were hung out.
Such a concept (female-male half) did not exist among the people, because the allocation of the female half was to some extent conditional. The curtain separating the parts of the dwelling was pulled only for guests or for the night. Adult children or a married son with a daughter-in-law could sleep behind it.

In the center of the yurt a tur kulmek («tur» — a place of honor in the house, «kulmek» — dress, shirt) was hung. Hanging of festive tur kulmek in a place of honor is preserved to this day. Shirts and dresses with national ornaments symbolized gifts from matchmakers (during wedding preparations) or veneration of ancestral spirits (the clothes of the deceased were hung on memorial days). The custom goes back to the cult of ancestors. The clothes symbolized generic attributes, the idea of reverence and respect for elders.

Urta yak is a place for everyone and for meals. It was the centerpiece of collective family councils, meals, etc. Dry grass was laid on the earthen floor, on which striped rag mats or septe (matting) were spread – mats woven from bast, a layer of dry earth was poured on top. The earth was believed to keep warm. The yurt since ancient times in its form and content personified the cult of the supreme deity – Tengri. The aspiration of the dome of the yurt to the sky suggests the proximity of the tenant to it; the calm and dignified behavior of people in the room of the yurt – a model that repeats the visible universe in design – emphasized the harmony of the relationship between Man and the surrounding nature and the world as a whole.
Rules and regulations for the design of a yurt
The yurt was decorated with red, green, blue woolen threads, tassels or branches of juniper, mountain ash. All this protected from the influence of evil spirits or the evil eye. Therefore, they simultaneously served as amulets. The yurt was designated by symbols of generic attributes according to ethnicity: tamgas loomed on the felt, a generic flag was hung, etc. At the same time it was also necessary to observe the rules of generic attributes and adhere to popular norms.

In the methodical manual «Bashkir yurt» published by the Ministry of culture and national policy of the Republic of Bashkortostan and by the Institute of history, language and literature of the Ufa scientific center of the Russian Academy of sciences it is noted that in the interior of the Bashkir yurt there is a great role of ornament, embodied in various materials and techniques, mainly in tissues.

Patterned fabrics were placed either by friezes around the entire yurt, or in separate strips and rows in the form of large unfolded planes, or they turned into cascades of bright color spots in things.

The ornamental row began at a height of 1,5 meters from the floor, along the edge of the lattice frame. Here a wide woven ribbon with a geometric pattern 25–30 cm wide was fixed. It fastened and decorated the junction of the dome with the skeleton.

The frame itself was decorated with rugs and large patterned fabrics, leaving small lattice gaps. In every house there were rugs, felts, prayer mats, woven and embroidered towels, mattresses, pillows, blankets, tablecloths.

Today yurts are also used for various purposes – as museums, premises for exhibitions and even as hotel rooms, for example, on the banks of the Nugush reservoir.
The yurt impresses with its volumes, despite its compactness. The height of the walls themselves is 1,5 meters, but due to the bending of the rafters it reaches 1,9 meters. A tall man can stand freely anywhere in the yurt. The height of the dome depends on the diameter of the yurt. For example, in a yurt with a diameter of 4 meters it is 2,5 meters and reaches 4 meters in a yurt with a diameter of 8 meters.

The yurt is not afraid of snow, although it was traditionally used in the climatic zone with low precipitation, therefore, it requires periodic removal of snow from the roof. This is a very simple operation – you need to lightly «poke» on the roof with a stick from the inside of the yurt so that the accumulated snow will slide, and that's it.
Galinur Zaripov, the only craftsman who makes authentic yurts, lives in the village of Kirgiz-Miyaki of the Miyakinsky district of Bashkortostan.

«We are building yurts of the Turkic type. All parts of the frame of the Turkic yurt are subjected to steaming followed by bending. Only hardwoods, especially oak, are suitable for bending. Elm and birch are also used in the construction of the frame. The bent parts give the frame more rigidity and a graceful appearance. Coniferous species are used only for the manufacture of doors. Maple, hazel and willow poles are used to build authentic yurts. Wall laths on such yurts are fastened with a rawhide belt.
Felt is used of white and gray, with a thickness of 3 to 8 mm, depending on the purpose of the yurt. Felt is environmentally friendly, does not burn, keeps warm well and is beautiful. This is a classic», – says Galinur Zaripov.

The invention of the yurt carried as a pack dramatically increased mobility and maneuverability. Since then snow-capped peaks, dense forests and rivers have ceased to be an obstacle. From that time a loaded horse or camel could walk along a narrow path — where only a person could walk before. The wheel is out of competition.

A yurt with a diameter of about four meters is a load for two pack horses, capable of covering up to sixty kilometers a day and fully resting. The presence of hundreds of horses in many families allowed, in emergency situations, to increase this distance to ninety kilometers. A simple calculation shows that the nomads could walk 900 kilometers in ten days. This is confirmed by the lightning speed of their conquests.

«The yurt amazes the imagination with its perfection. Over the millennia all components have been carefully honed until they became perfect. Nothing more», – Galinur Zaripov admires.
«Modern yurts should be looked after in the same way as our ancestors, – says Galinur. – If the yurt is stationary, then every six months you have to pull all the ropes by removing the felt and the awning. After heavy rains the yurt was necessarily ventilated by throwing back the felt covering the dome and lifting the lower part of the wall felt around the entire perimeter».
Author (compiler): R. T. Valeeva, 2019

In addition to the mentioned literary sources materials from the site http://tuqaiyurts.com were used